Dynamical landscape of transitional pipe flow

A. Frishman and T.Grafke, Phys. Rev. E 105 (2022), 045108


The transition to turbulence in pipes is characterized by a coexistence of laminar and turbulent states. At the lower end of the transition, localized turbulent pulses, called puffs, can be excited. Puffs can decay when rare fluctuations drive them close to an edge state lying at the phase-space boundary with laminar flow. At higher Reynolds numbers, homogeneous turbulence can be sustained, and dominates over laminar flow. Here we complete this landscape of localized states, placing it within a unified bifurcation picture. We demonstrate our claims within the Barkley model, and motivate them generally. Specifically, we suggest the existence of an antipuff and a gap-edge---states which mirror the puff and related edge state. Previously observed laminar gaps forming within homogeneous turbulence are then naturally identified as antipuffs nucleating and decaying through the gap edge.