UKAIS Conference 2003

University of Warwick, April 9-11th

"Co-ordination and Co-opetition: the IS role"

UKAIS2003: List of titles and abstracts by Paper#

A prioritised list is also available.
Printable version
1 Simon Gould; Philip Powell Understanding Knowledge In The Defence Procurement Agency. While the literature is replete with knowledge categorisations and consultants’ panaceas for knowledge management, there are few attempts to research organisations’ knowledge stock. To redress this, the research reported here investigates knowledge management in the Defence Procurement Agency. Five categories of knowledge are identified and their interactions explained through the development of a knowledge model. This demonstrates the untapped value of tacit knowledge held individually or collectively in project teams. Sharing this knowledge outside teams is restricted by inadequate IS, motivation and culture.
2 Dr. Joe McDonagh; Jorge Diaz-Padilla The Evolution of the IS Strategic Planning Field: An Assessment via Published Articles. The information systems (IS) strategic planning field has been evolving continuously since the 1960’s. In order to understand both its evolutionary path and probable future directions, an assessment was made of its progression over time along with the emergence of key research themes. An investigation was performed by focusing on published articles that incorporate the IS planning topic. While the results demonstrate the relevance and importance of the field, recurrent problems indicate that further research is still required. This investigation also explored the contribution of academic articles to theory development within the IS strategic planning domain while also critiquing the research methodologies applied during empirical investigations. A more detailed critique of extant journals that publish IS strategic planning research suggests that fewer articles are being published by academics within this area, implying a reduction in its importance, and its interest or relevance to organisations and researchers.
3 Galal, Galal H. Using Scenarios in Systems Architecting. This paper poses the problem of systems architecting as one that concerns itself with enabling a high-fidelity reflective cycle during the design of information systems architectures, and the establishment of the systems’ architectonic profiles, with the aim of enhancing the system’s ability to adapt. These tasks, however, are dependent on the specific problem situations in hand and their contextual characteristics. As the problem and its context is initially only available in qualitative and unstructured terms, we propose a methodological tool, based on the Grounded Theory method from the social sciences, to investigate and characterise the context. The results are then used to construct system-wide scenarios that can be used for in-process evaluation of architecture to support a grounded and systematic systems architecting process.
5 Sean Dodd; Mark Lycett Ethical Frameworks and Software Project Management: a Case Study to Identify the Role and Importance to Practitioners of the IEEE/ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for Software Developers. Information System (IS) development projects are notorious for late delivery, poor quality and/or excessive cost. Although attempts have been made to reduce or even omit these ‘symptoms’, it is postulated here that, in part at least, that their cause lies in ethical tensions between the constraints of time, cost, quality and scope. The IEEE/ACM organisations jointly created a code of conduct for software developers and project managers which was first published in 1992, with the aim of addressing ethical tensions, called the IEEE/ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for Software Developers. With this in mind, the paper outlines a case study that was conducted with a project development team employed by a large international company based in west London. The objectives of the case study included the identification of unethical practices implemented by project managers and software developers and, to identify their cause. To facilitate this goal, an understanding of the context in which software development is undertaken was also sought - with participation in the research by other business units with which project teams interact. The business units identified as pertinent to software development were: Recruitment, Human Resources, Quality Control and the company as a whole due to it having an influential US parent. The paper concludes by looking at the theoretical and practical implications this study has for how the IEEE/ACM code might be improved and how ethical codes might be better implemented by software project managers.
6 Yogesh Kumar Dwivedi; Jyoti Choudrie The Impact of Broadband on Consumer Online Habits and Usage of Internet Based Activities. The current debate on the diffusion of broadband technology is marked by expectation and uncertainty. The expectation is that public exploitation of high-speed Internet technologies will help to shape the e-society and stimulate the economy by transforming its consumer attitude and behaviour towards Internet and electronic commerce. The uncertainty is whether there is generated impact enough to produce significant social and behavioural changes and to sustain the technology for a longer period. This paper examines the impact of broadband on online habits and usage of the internet activities. The survey research data was randomly collected from a total of 104 UK internet users and subjected to quantitative data analysis. The study provides evidence that significant changes in the total time spent on-line, Internet usage frequency and activities performed online can occur when people use broadband technology. The paper concludes by finding that Internet users stay longer online and use Internet many times in a day. E-mail and search emerged as the most commonly used online activities in a broadband environment.
7 Peter Merrick; Dr. Pat Barrow Towards a Requirements Formalism in UML. This paper looks at the case for including a Use Case model as part of a Request for Proposal (RFP) during the process of competitive tendering for a new IT system. Customer organisations suffer from the perceived problem of writing tender documents that contain ambiguous requirements, which in turn may render guesswork the calculation of an accurate price and delivery schedule. The process described in this paper looks at ways in which Use Case modelling can be undertaken by the customer organisation to improve IT procurement. Applicable to both bespoke software development and Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) evaluation, the potential benefit from the adoption of Use Case modelling in procurement are explored. Use Case modelling has generally been an activity undertaken by analysts after commercial contracts have been agreed. This is partially due to the complexity and time-consuming nature of producing Use Cases, and partially due to the confusion that surrounds their representation. In this paper, a minimal Use Case representation, suitable for the purpose of procurement, is proposed. Use Case modelling suffers from a lack of guidance that allows a set of Use Cases produced for the same purpose to be represented at the same conceptual level. There is tension between the Jacobson philosophy that defines Use Cases as being oriented strictly around the user and the broader hierarchy of Use Case goals approach, introduced by Cockburn. This paper seeks to bring both approaches together and show that while Use Cases have the primary function of representing users’ requirements, there exists another dimension of Use Case applicability focused on serving the needs of all project’s stakeholders.
8 Steve Page; Brenda Seddon The Human and Social Factors Associated with the Development of a Computerised Information System: A Case Study from the Building Industry. At the start of the 21st century, with ever faster and more complex computer systems being built and implemented into organisations, there are many issues concerning the organisational use of computerised information systems that are still poorly understood. Previous research shows that the introduction of information technology into an organisation will impact upon the workforce therein; this impact may be positive or negative. This research uses a case study from the building industry to examine factors associated with the impact of an information technology development on the workforce. The purpose of the study is to compare the pre-delivery expectations of the workforce, for a new IS, with the reality of the current system, in an attempt to better understand he human and social factors associated with the development of a computerised information system.
10 Dr David Rossin; Simon Reilly The Rising Tide of Employee Monitoring Software: Should we be Concerned? The rising tide of Employee Monitoring (EM) software can be regarded as yet another means of ‘keeping watch’ over people through surveillance in the workplace. Could this be part of a growing trend to shed doubt and suspicion on fellow workers in terms of their performance at work? According to recent evidence, about one in four large companies systematically monitor their employees. Does this suggest that our working lives are controlled by new kind of Orwellian ‘Big Brother’? This paper examines the impact of EM software at work. Although it would appear that the use of such software could bring about dystopian consequences, it is argued that, it is not so much the technology itself but how we use the technology for good or for ill, that determines the outcomes of our working (and personal) lives. Although we must be wary of the more intrusive forms of software surveillance, the author puts forward an alternative ‘world view’ based on the notion of a ‘Human-Centred Organisation’. In striving towards creating such an organisation, where personal privacy, autonomy and human dignity are paramount, the concept of surveillance takes on new meanings. Kant’s philosophy of treating people always as ends and never merely as means is examined in this light.
11 Mrs. P. Costello; Dr. A. Sloane Friendly advice? - How SMEs Gain Knowledge of ICT This paper presents some observations from a pilot study carried out for the purpose of initial PhD studies. It explores the dilemma facing SMEs when making decisions with regard to the purchasing of IT equipment and gives the experiences of 3 companies, 1 a medium sized company, 1 a small company and 1 a micro-company. As such there is no attempt at comparison but rather an endeavour to add more research material to the ‘pool’ of knowledge as called for by Martin & Matley 2001.
12 Christine Urquhart; Alison Yeoman; Susan Sharp Developing Communities of Practice in the NELH (National Electronic Library for Health). The aim of the evaluation project was to examine how specialist areas of the National electronic Library for Health should be developed as virtual communities of practice. The objectives included a review of the research evidence, to identify the factors that affect the successful operation of such communities. The review findings informed the appraisal framework used to assess whether the specialist areas (the Virtual Branch Libraries, in particular) of the National electronic Library for Health portal were evolving as evidence indicated they should. Appraisal findings indicated that most of the Virtual Branch Libraries had successfully evolved beyond the initial stages of community of practice development but that the more sophisticated stages of community of practice existence would require, for example, development of collaborative work tasks. The appraisal framework was successful in identifying some possible barriers to further development, as well as the opportunities for exploiting tacit knowledge within the NHS more cost-effectively than has been possible up till now.
14 Jim Brown; Petia Sice A Knowledge Management Approach to Reducing the Cost of Poor Quality-the Draeger Safety UK Ltd. Case. In 2000 Draeger Safety UK Ltd., Blyth pioneered a knowledge management approach to reducing the cost of poor quality. The approach draws together principles from reductionism, holism and systems’ thinking under the banner of quality improvement. This paper explores the philosophical perspective and the implementation of the approach within Draeger, which came to be known as the ‘Cost Of Poor Quality’ (COPQ) methodology. Introducing COPQ in practice resulted in reduction of the costs associated with poor quality from 3.5 % to less than 0.5% of overall manufacturing costs. The additional wider quality benefits from enhanced communication, improved inter-group and personal relationships allied with a sense of individual and group empowerment proved to be even more valuable to the company than the cost reduction. The introduction of COPQ contributed to the development of a quality centred culture, not only in relation to produced saleable items, but also with regard to processes, employee’ responsibilities and relationships.
15 Mohdzaher Mohdzain; John Ward Information Systems Strategic Planning in Multinationals: a Case Study. This paper discusses the findings derived from a case study aimed to understand the information systems strategic planning (ISSP) in a large US-based multinational. The case study reported in this paper is part of a larger research project involving three American, two Japanese, and five European multinationals operating in various industries. For this company, the responsibility for ISSP is, to a large extent, centralized at the corporate headquarters and mainly focused on achieving scale economies for competitive advantage. The study found that even though the company is trying to shift from technology-driven to business-driven, ISSP at this company is largely influenced by financial budgets and constraints. All these factors lead to standardization of major applications systems particularly the manufacturing, purchasing, financial, and human resource systems. Even though standardization enables the company to reduce cost and duplication of effort, the subsidiary believes their requirements are sometimes being neglected.
16 Coombs, C. R.; Doherty, N. F.; Loan-Clarke J. Empowerment versus Control? A study of the cultural impact of Information Systems in NHS Community Trusts. It has long been recognised that the implementation of information systems can impact upon organisational culture and that problems may arise in situations where the cultural assumptions embedded within a system conflict with the host organisation’s culture. However, there has, to date, been little empirical research in this area, particularly with respect to the potential of systems to either facilitate empowerment or reinforce a control orientation. The current study investigates the cultural impacts of a standard software application, within a homogenous organisational sector, namely NHS Community Trusts. A multiple case-study design incorporating five Community Healthcare Trusts was utilised. The study found that whilst the system was perceived as facilitating empowerment in two trusts, it was felt to be reinforcing management control in another trust; there was no significant cultural change in the other trusts. Moreover, there was strong evidence to suggest that the contribution of the systems that facilitated empowerment was perceived to be far more positive than in those instances where the system reinforced a control orientation.
17 Dr Elizabeth Daniel; Professor John Ward Enterprise Portals: Improving Service Delivery In Local Government. Enterprise portals are currently being implemented by a significant number of organisations, both in the public and private sector. Such systems promise a wide range of benefits, including; the integration of disparate information sources and applications, allowing staff easier and faster access to both, and the ability to tailor or personalise this access based on roles, functions or location. This paper describes the development and early stage deployment of an enterprise portal within West Sussex County Council. The portal is seen as a key element of their e-government activities, enabling the Council to meet Government targets in this area. The intention is for the portal to provide a single location for all individuals, both customers and staff, wishing to access the on-line information and transactional services provided by the Council. The portal investment by the Council is expected to improve service delivery to customers, both through on-line access and by increasing the ability to share information across its own directorates and also to improve working with other agencies. The case study raises a number of issues of relevance beyond the public sector, concerning the ability of organisations to achieve the immediate and longer term benefits enterprise portals appear to offer.
18 Neil McBride; Ray Hackney Establishing the Principles of Information Systems Teaching. The interdisciplinary nature of information systems (IS) presents significant challenges for IS teachers. This paper examines the nature of the IS teaching task. It asks: what are we trying to achieve as IS teachers? What are the characteristics of IS and what might these tell us about how we should be teaching IS? What is the nature of the multiple role of the IS teacher? Where do our curricula come from and how do we integrate research and teaching? Since IS has no unified theoretical foundations, unlike the computational mathematics which underpins computer science, identifying principles on which information systems teaching should be based is difficult. By identifying some of the various roles which IS teachers adopt, this paper seeks to define some overarching principles that should drive IS teaching. Teacher's roles include theoretician, practitioner, priest, counsellor and evangelist. Each of these roles suggests principles for teaching IS. The paper also suggests the key importance of networks of communication in establishing the basis of IS teaching.
19 Dr Marco De Boni; Dr Martyn Prigmore Growing Up in Cyberspace: Children’s Rights Online. Current approaches to protecting the rights of children online, in particular their right to privacy, show that legislators, regulators and society in general regard children as needing special protection. A philosophical analysis of the problem of reconciling children’s online rights with the adults’ rights such as freedom of expression is presented, based on the writings of Hegel. It is shown that from this perspective the family must act as mediator in resolving the contradiction, and a proposal is made in this direction.
20 Janos Korn Empirical Background To Information. The real world and the world of thought are interfaced by perception which responds to physical effects. Information is described as a means like a picture, writing, body language etc. with meaning carried by a physical object like paint/paper which creates a physical effect. The task of information is to change mental states : ignorance or uncertainty. Thus, there are two kinds of information : called ‘direct’ and ‘choice’, both can be represented with a calculated measure of effectiveness so as to fit into linguistic modelling. A measure of quantity can be assigned to choice information. Linguistic modelling, through a simple example, is used to represent the generation, transmission and reception of information i.e. to create an information system (IS).
21 Simon Tan; Kecheng Liu; Zhiwu Xie A Semiotic Approach to Organisational Modelling using Norm Analysis. This paper explores a theoretical perspective to information systems engineering, correlating requirements modelling techniques with Norm Analysis, to elicit organisational semantics and to formalise complex business rules. At present noticeable disparity exists between systems models, and the actual, ‘real’ organisation information systems. The modern multifaceted organisational disposition is complicated further with exceptions in business rules, and volatility in the behaviour of normative agents. Traditional systems approaches do not fully address these complications, and disparity in systems models; Norm Analysis, however, offers a viable alternative, which until now has not been extensively explored. These inherent systems design issues may be alleviated with the introduction of norms, to address the complexity of organisational information systems. We propose utilising Norm Analysis, a branch of Organisational Semiotics, for the elicitation of IS requirements to encapsulate rigorous business behaviour, and formalise intricate business rules. We believe this approach will contribute to the overall usability and coherence of organisational models. The second part of this paper considers the adequacy of representing norms in deontic logic, rules operands and temporal based systems, with an illustration of a constabulary crime-reporting case study.
22 R. Setchi; N. Lagos Ontology Development and Merging Using Protégé. During the last few years the amount of information and knowledge available on the Web has reached enormous amounts. An emerging problem of significant importance is the efficient retrieval and reuse of these resources. In particular, new information structuring frameworks, such as ontologies, are required to assist in reorganising the information available on the Web on contextual and conceptual basis. This paper focuses on the integration of an ontology design methodology with traditional software techniques. A domain-specific ontology is developed to show that object-oriented design principles can be used in ontology design. The paper describes the development, integration and merging of ontologies in Protégé and presents experimental results to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach.
23 B. J. Oates; G Griffiths; B. D. Hebbron; M. A. Lockyer Multiple Perspectives in Web Development. Systems development is a fundamental element of the IS field. Since the mid 90’s there has been an explosion in the use of the Internet and Web and a need for web development methods has become apparent. We discuss the nature of web development and argue that web development methods require more than one process model, and that they must bring together three perspectives: the artistic, social and technical. To illustrate the use of these three perspectives we introduce SWM (pronounced ‘Swim’), our web development method. We discuss two of its process models and analyse it against the three different perspectives. Finally we indicate how we intend to develop SWM, and how our multiple perspective analysis of a web development method can be applied elsewhere.
24 Khaled Sabry; Lynne P. Baldwin Web-Based Learning Interaction: a Student Perspective. This paper explores the perceptions of a group of undergraduate and postgraduate learners in a university in the UK in relation to using the web for learning. Particularly, we explore the active/reflective learning style dimension (which is concerned with information processing) in relation to three categories of interaction. One, student-tutor. Two, student-student. Three, student-information. Felder and Soloman’s Index of Learning Styles (1999) is used as the tool to explore this dimension. We present our findings with regard to the learning preferences of a group of learners towards these three categories of interaction and conclude with a discussion of these findings and their value in designing more users focused learning systems.
25 Jeffrey Hsu Cultural Issues of Marketing E-Commerce In China. There are many issues relating to the cultural aspects of Chinese culture and society which can impact the design and content of e-commerce web sites which are directed towards Chinese audiences. Some of these issues include the basic differences between Chinese and American/Western cultures, family and collective orientations, religion and faith, color, symbolism, ordering and risk/uncertainty. Attention is given to the differences between the cultures of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Singapore, as well as addressing issues brought up by related theories and frameworks. A discussion of important considerations which relate to using Chinese language on the World Wide Web (WWW) is also included. Finally, insights are gained by examining web sites produced in China and Chinese-speaking countries. This paper will focus on many of these issues and provide practical guidelines and advice for those who want to reach out to Chinese audiences, whether for e-commerce, education, or other needs.
26 Jeffrey Hsu Can the Interface Affect Users Programming the Web: Examining Command and Menu/Form Interfaces and their Effects on Satisfaction and Performance. While markup languages are now widely used for web page and site design, and electronic publishing applications, they have not been studied adequately compared with other kinds of languages. The impact of interaction mode, in this case command-based coding, versus using a form-fill-in wizard, is examined, with respect to performance and satisfaction while performing a survey-oriented task. Skill level, which classified users as being either a novice or experienced, was another factor which was taken into account in this study. The results showed that the use of wizards brought about better performance than using the command language, and the difference between modes was far greater for novices rather than experienced users. In addition, using the wizard tended to equalize performance across skill levels. With regards to system satisfaction, there were significant differences between interaction modes, however no differences were reported between skill levels. These differences in performance and satisfaction should be noted and considered when designing interactive systems for programming-related applications.
28 Stephen S. Corea Elucidating the Emergent Context of IT Based Innovation: An Interpretive Systems Framework. A major concern in contemporary IS research is the contextual shaping of IT-based work operations in organisations. Missing from recent theorising in this area has been a method based on systems thinking, with its correspondent benefits of integrative, inter-relational analysis. Drawing from socio-semiotic theory by Greimas and hermeneutics by Ricoeur, this paper presents a novel methodological framework of interpretive, systems-based sociotechnical analysis, for use in elucidating the emergent, context-specific nature of IT-related practices or innovation. This systems framework supports a multi-dimensional understanding of the interactions of heterogeneous elements and factors in organisational functioning, by representing those interactions in the form of systems of signification, characterised by oppositional relations. The nature and consequences of an organisation’s IT-based operations may thus be illuminated in terms of key tensions and contradictions, unique to its particular context, that shape the trajectory of its transformation, or that constitute a persistent gestalt in its functioning. This framework enables diagnosis of the contextual shaping of IS activity and transformation in organisations, as being constituted by distinct and often conflicting schemes of action and outcomes.
29 John Harney; John Carter; Abdul Jolil Developing a JAD Workshop Approach For SME Process Improvement. Joint Applications Design is a useful technique for establishing user requirements in group sessions. However, for SMEs the time and resources needed for running JAD workshops is unsustainable. This paper describes a possible way of overcoming these problems by using a CASE tool and an electronic whiteboard to allow one person to be the JAD facilitator, systems person and scribe.
30 Haim Kilov; Ira Sack An Innovative University Course in Data Management for Professionals. This paper describes an innovative data management course for professionals that was presented in a university environment. The course was based on a small number of well-defined stable concepts and constructs of information management rather than on rapidly changing buzzword-compliant technological artefacts. These stable concepts have been around in business and information management for a long time, and they are based on mathematics and philosophy. The course demonstrates not only the concepts themselves but also how these concepts have been and can be used in various industrial environments.
31 Ali Al-Badi; Yurii Boreisha Web Site Globalization: Interface Design Considerations. Companies are realizing that just translating Web content from one language to another is highly inadequate. Due to the cultural, geographical, and other issues the Web interfaces and the content of the Web pages should fit to the restrictions and requirements imposed by the different categories of users. To solve this problem, this paper is adopting a component- and XML-based approach for the Web interfaces design and development. This paper seeks to briefly highlight the barriers to global e-commerce and provide some suggestions to overcome such barriers. It also highlights some of the cultural issues that should be considered when designing a web site for international audience.
32 Dr J.S. Briggs An Analysis of the Publications Submitted to the Library and Information Management Panel in RAE 2001. In this paper we analyse the publications considered by the Library and Information Management panel (Unit of Assessment 61) in the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) and describe a means of scoring, and hence three means of ranking, publication locations (defined as journals, conference proceedings or report series) based on the RAE results. We discuss the validity of the results with respect to three factors: 1. the process of the RAE itself (and in particular the fact that the RAE assessed more than just the quality of publications); 2. how our results compare with conventional journal impact factors (including the suggestion that a high impact factor is a reliable predictor of a high RAE grade); and 3. cases where a publication location is cited by only a small number of institutions, which may lead to a high score that is not indicative of the limited interest that publication location might attract. We present lists of journals, conferences and report series ranked by various criteria based on the RAE results. The next step is for the Library and Information Management research community to decide whether our measures are a useful tool for the next research assessment exercise or for research purposes in general. Knowing the level of interest about the RAE among academics, we are sure that our results will provoke much discussion.
34 Angela Lin; Tony Cornford; Jonathan Foster Implementing and Sustaining Infrastructures: A Question of When Not What. This paper considers the implementation of IT infrastructures from the perspective of their ongoing performance. Based on a case study of the implementation of Lotus Notes in a manufacturing company in the UK, it depicts this performance as the interaction between issues and concerns emerging from use the of Lotus Notes and the hosting organization. Drawing on Star and Ruhleder (1996) three levels of analysis are identified: resources, contextual effects, and long-standing disputes or controversies, and the interactions between them are explored. The paper concludes with an account of infrastructures and their implementation that emphasises the need for dynamic models that place emphasis on dealing with issues that emerge during an extended implementation process and as an infrastructure becomes progressively embedded into the organizational context.
35 Roger Cooley; Ursula Fuller; Mike Fuller Knowledge Management and Not-For-Profit Organisations. This paper discusses the task of specifying knowledge management applications for use in not-for-profit organisations. It describes four approaches to knowledge management requirement specification, and then introduces a framework within which those approaches could be used. The framework is illustrated with a case study on the potential role of Knowledge Management to facilitate and improve the performance of school governors.
36 Elias Pimenidis; Jacquie M. Bolissian E-Economy the New Globalization Force. The hype of the era in the late 1990's and the collapse of the associated stock market bubble on the dawn of the new century have demystified the concepts of e-commerce and e-business. At the same time these events have set the scene for a more rational approach to evaluating the opportunities available in the Internetworked world. It is the authors’ view that far from their proclaimed extinction electronic commerce and electronic business are here to stay. Their potential is far greater than what has been experienced so far. Their contribution will positively influence evolutionary developments in both the world economy and the world ecology. Intelligent management of the electronic networked world could yield better wealth distribution through more sophisticate utilization of resources and more effective control of pollution. This in turn would lead to a new form of globalization achieving an increased social cohesion that would eventually result in a planet that's much more stable in terms of both economical and ecological factors.
37 Ian Allison; Yasmin Merali Software Process Improvement: Towards an Emergent Perspective. Software process improvement (SPI) involves the identification and application of changes to the software development process. A deterministic perspective of improving the activity of software development has dominated the software process improvement literature. Software process improvement, however, is more complex than the deterministic approaches show. Previous work has shown that the factors that shape process improvement activity are contextual, yet the existing literature does not extend into understanding the way that these factors actually affect SPI as it is enacted. By looking at SPI as an emergent activity rather than a deterministic one, we can understand how the design and action of the change process are intertwined. Systems development and improvement is the outcome of a complex process of interaction and communication shaped by the context of the actors. The dynamic nature of software process and process improvement is such that each informs the other. A conceptual model for analysing SPI as emergent change is developed from the literature on organisational theory and SPI. The model highlights the intertwining between software development and process improvement.
38 Stephen Duhan Using Organizational Capabilities as a Basis for ISP In SMEs: the CPX Framework. This paper explores the operationalisation of the concept of organizational capability in Information Systems Planning (ISP) in SMEs. Competence based literature is used to propose a framework for the articulation of organizational capability and its elicitation within an organisation. Findings are presented whereby organizational capabilities are identified and articulated in three SMEs where IS/IT has strategic importance. This articulation is used as the basis for assessing and evaluating IS/IT roles in organizational capability. A method is suggested and employed to propose future IS/IT roles in leveraging and developing organizational capabilities. A discussion is held about the generality of findings, and the usefulness of such a tool in ISP.
39 Maribel Yasmina Santos; Isabel Ramos Knowledge Construction: The Role of the Data Mining Tools. This paper seeks to integrate the process of knowledge discovery in databases in the wider context of the creation and sharing of organisational knowledge. The focus on the process of knowledge discovery has been mainly technological. The paper attempts to enrich that perspective by stressing the insights gained by integrating the knowledge discovery process into the social process of knowledge construction that makes KDD meaningful. In order to achieve this goal, a test case is presented. A component of the database of the Portuguese Army was used to test the Padrão system. This system integrates a set of databases and principles of qualitative spatial reasoning, which are implemented in the Clementine Data Mining system. The process and the results obtained are then discussed in order to stress the insights that emerge when the focus changes from technology to the social construction of knowledge.
40 Julian Sims; Philip Powell; Richard Vidgen Developing E-Learning Strategy: An RBV Approach. This study seeks to understand the adoption of e-learning by Higher Education Institutions from a resource-based view. Case analysis suggests the principle drivers are fear of failure, envy of success and a shortage of resources with rising numbers of students. The ability to experiment, to generate organisational learning, the redesign of learning and the ability to manage campus-wide integration of management information systems are the key capabilities in the first stages of adoption. There is little evidence of enacted strategy, but growing understanding of how to use e-learning through experimentation, and technology acquisition through outsourcing.
41 José Córdoba Foucault On Power And Ethics: Implications For Information Systems Planning. In the realm of information systems (IS) planning and definition, different methods and models have been developed to help practitioners dealing with ethical issues. It is commonly assumed that conflicts which arise in relation to ethics can be identified and solved by practitioners, e.g. there is an ethical stance which they will adopt over the others. In this paper I present some ideas of Michel Foucault’s work on power and ethics which can inform our current understanding of IS planning. These ideas make it explicit in IS planning practice the existence of different discourses about what is ‘right’ or ‘good’ to do which are in tension with each other and are deployed to individuals via power relations. This poses a challenge to existing codes of ethics in the practice of information systems.
42 Naureen Khan; Wendy L. Currie; Vishanth Weerakkody An Investigation of the Benefits and Risks of Offshore Outsourcing. The increasing demand for low-cost-high-quality information systems and technology has led to the search for affordable outsourcing solutions beyond one’s geographic boundaries. This has revitalised the practice of offshore outsourcing during the last decade, which has continued to evolve with regard to its adoption and acceptance globally. This paper identifies different types of offshore outsourcing and their benefits and risks through case study based research and proposed ways of mitigating these risks.
43 Kieran Conboy Rationalism and Improvisation: An Investigation of Requirements Engineering in a COTS Selection Environment. The use of COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) software applications has become much more prevalent with the emergence of the Web, and more recently with the explosion of hypermedia. However, using COTS applications does not mean the life cycle can be bypassed. The requirements engineering phase of regular development manifests itself in the form of product selection. Herein are reported the findings of a case study of a Web Information System (WIS) development project which incorporates such a product selection approach. Within the field of Information System (IS) research, much has been made of the gap between academic research and practice. Nowhere is this more evident than in the area of requirements engineering. In practice, requirements engineering methodologies are not executed in the structured, methodical way advocated by researchers. This is not surprising, as the underlying philosophy of most of these methodologies is that systems development is a rational process, whereas in actuality it is more accurately portrayed as creative, somewhat improvised behaviour. It is therefore important to determine if the key issues suggested by the normative view of requirements engineering corresponds with the approaches being used in the real world. This paper examines requirements engineering practice from a design theory perspective, focusing specifically on the contrast between “rationalism” and “improvisation” and the battle between the need for structure, co-ordination, co-operation, and the restrictions that they impose. Both philosophies have pitfalls inherently associated with them. This paper describes these pitfalls and discusses how these pitfalls were encountered in the case study. The findings of this paper suggest that, although a methodology may be very specific and firmly based in the “rational” paradigm, the rationale may be too simple for the problem to be solved, thereby forcing the users to improvise by privately making decisions. Furthermore, users may still improvise even if they are not forced to. In conclusion, this paper asserts that even where methodologies are developed and revised based on actual experiences in practice, as opposed to academic theory, a wholly methodical approach is difficult to develop and impossible to follow.
44 Jennifer Fu; Kecheng Liu E-Learning as a Process of Knowledge Construction—A Constructivist and Semiotic Perspective. E-learning refers to any form of learning delivered or supported by the use of web-based technology or other electronic media. Compared with traditional classroom learning, e-learning has shown its advantages by its nature of flexibility, accessibility and convenience to learners. Given the broad deployment of network technology and increasing on-line communication in teaching and learning, there is an urgent need for a methodological guidance on web-based instruction. The theories adopted in this paper are constructivism and semiotics, which share startling resemblance in the views of knowledge construction and learning process. From a combined perspective of constructivism and semiotics, e-learning is regarded as a process of knowledge construction. To make the theories applicable, this paper provides design principles for e-learning courseware and applies techniques of content objects and learning objects for the design. Learning objects give learners freedom to perform learning from different paths. In this way, learners are put in the centre of a learning process, and construct knowledge through their own experience, which is supported and confirmed by the theories of constructivism and semiotics. Based on the techniques of content objects and learning objects, designing and delivering UML course on-line is chosen to be an example for illustration. The outcome of our work is expected to be applicable for e-learning courseware design.
45 Dr Amit Mitra; Ms Mildred Brown Knowledge Systems for Dynamic Environments: Case within Manufacturing Industry. Increasing uncertainties with regard to differentiated competitive advantages related to geographic locations along with rising costs of skilled labour has meant that managers are expected to maximise output out of diminishing resources. Simultaneous to a rise in location related uncertainties, there has been a change in the type of resources that managers have traditionally been accustomed to depend upon. A significant proportion of current resources have become intangible, present in the skills and knowledge of the workforce. Skill and knowledge intensive sectors like the electronics manufacturing industry have also been affected by the pervasive shift in resources. In the recent past, the electronics manufacturing industries have generally flourished. Competitive advantages that have contributed to progress of the electronics-manufacturing sector have been by virtue of inter alia, reducing lead times in production, shortening product life cycles and expanding product ranges. It is now clear that these advances have a connection to flexibility and adaptability of existing knowledge systems. With large production facilities, organisations are increasingly reliant on formal knowledge systems. The present paper, firstly, tries to evaluate the context developing knowledge systems. The second objective of the paper is to relate to such knowledge system development through obtained evidence within a particular electronics-components manufacturing company. For the purposes of the present paper, the company shall be referred to as Lexmarc.
46 Dr Céline Abecassis-Moedas The Role of IT in Changing the Design Dynamics in the Clothing Industry. The article describes how the development of Information Technologies (EDI and CAD-CAM) has changed the dynamics of design in the textiles-clothing-retail value chain. It shows that there has been an appropriation of the design stage (traditionally undertaken by manufacturers) by the retailers.
47 Maria Woerndl; Philip Powell; Margi Levy Flexibility Matters? SMEs and ASP. This paper reports on early findings from exploratory research on application service provision (ASP) in UK small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs are known to be relatively inflexible in their use of information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) yet ASP, a form of IT sourcing enabled by networking capabilities, may promote SME flexibility. Flexibility issues arising in SMEs when ASP is deployed are presented, highlighting the challenges faced. A way of exploring flexibility through IS in SMEs is introduced and case data is used to explore its validity.
48 Tillal Eldabi; Ray J. Paul; Hussein Sbeih Operational Use Evaluation/Post Implementation Evaluation of Information Technology. The importance of IT evaluation stems largely from the fact that there is an increasing concern that IT is not delivering anticipated value and benefits; furthermore, many projects don not meet business objectives. This paper describes and compare IT evaluation types according to development stage and the timing of evaluation; these types are: prior and operational use evaluation of IT. Much has been written about prior operation use evaluation; in this study, we focus more on operational use evaluation, its purposes, advantages and disadvantages, obstacles, timing of evaluation, involving and criteria of evaluation. This paper highlights many issues relevant to operational use evaluation, such as: definition, importance, evaluation stages, advantages and disadvantages, obstacles, timing of evaluation, involving and criteria.
49 Laurence Brookes Much Ado About Something? Structuration Theory and Information Systems. Structuration theory, as developed by Giddens (1990), has been then appropriated by a range of researchers (Lyytinen and Ngwenyama 1992, DeSanctis and Poole 1994, Karsten 1995a/b, Walsham and Sahay 1996, Brooks 1997, Jones 1999, Braa and Hedberg 2002, Walsham 2002) to investigate and decipher the implications of the development and use of information systems within organisations. This paper will briefly review the theoretical background to Structuration theory, establish the framework in which it might be used with information systems and then explore the practical or more pragmatic approach that might qualify this as a ‘useful’ approach. Ultimately it might best serve as a sensitising framework, but it might just be that by combining with other theoretical frameworks (such as Actor Network Theory), that Structuration theory might just provide the basis for a crucial central theory within the information systems field.
50 Michele L. Ambaye; Professor Ray J. Paul Towards a Consumer Decision Process Model for Online Behaviour. Studies confirm that women are the major purchasers of grocery, household and apparel goods. Traditional retail channels for such purchases include high street stores, shopping malls, department stores and mail order. More recently women appear to be adopting the internet as an alternative retail channel to support and augment this role. This trend is not surprising as studies now estimate that female online users are almost equal in percentage to male users. This paper considers the extent to which the basic principles of purchasing behaviour, established in traditional retailing, may be applied to the internet. As a focal point, the paper discusses the results of an empirical study of the behaviour of working women purchasing apparel online. It concludes that an alternative model that better describes different purchasing behaviour on the internet could be beneficial.
52 Vladimir Diatlov IT-Enabled Organisation: Coordination Concerned? This work is not about virtual organisations, but about traditional organisations undertaking IT-enabled coordination. Modernist research into interdependence and unit grouping and interpretivist developments for structural enactment and selective IT use are synthesised into theoretical discussion in format recommended by Zmud (1998). Organisational studies are focused on task interdependence, but analysis of actual practices reveals that authority-based coordination is likely to be replaced with need-based collaboration and IT-driven communication phenomena. Fragmentation of today’s organisations is managed with information and time sharing, rules and controls – coordination means that are most easily implementable with IT and associated with explication, formalisation and action tracing. How such bureaucratic outcomes will be reconciled with the milieu of collaboration and weak ties will shape organisational transformation.
53 E. Redondo; E. Daniel Electronically Enabled Inter-Firm Relationships. This paper examines the influence of information systems on inter-firm relationships. The IS literature shows that firms can derive considerable advantages from establishing electronic relationships with other firms. New information technologies can be used to extend the ways firms relate with each other, offering substantial benefits for participating companies. The paper reviews the inter-firm relationship literature and presents a series of dimensions that enable the clarification and measurement of inter-firm relationships. It then goes on to discuss some examples of inter-firm relationships and the motives firms might have to establish such linkages. Finally, it identifies a gap in this area of knowledge and discusses the relevance of addressing it in a manufacturing context.
54 D. E. Sofiane Tebboune; Vishanth Weerakkody; Wendy, L. Currie Strategic Alliances in Application Service Provision: A Theoretical Perspective. Application Service Provision (ASP), which consists in deploying, managing and remotely hosting software applications through centrally located servers, is emerging as a new form of application outsourcing that is attracting many sectors. It is shown in this paper that the ASP model is highly based on the concept of strategic alliances, illustrating the idea with two cases, one of which was a failure because of inappropriate partnership management. The authors highlight the importance of focusing on alliances management by presenting a life cycle approach to alliances. The paper also attempts to explain strategic alliances in ASP using the resource-based view of the firm. This paper concludes by presenting predictions about the future of ASP, as well as directions for future research.
56 L Bellarby Volunteers Not Conscripts: Knowledge Management in the Voluntary Sector. This is a preliminary report based upon a case study of a charitable organisation in the ‘caring sector’. The organisation has requested that its identity remain anonymous. The research was initially inspired by ideas drawn from the Knowledge Management (KM) arena. It sought to investigate Nonaka’s ideas about KM in organisations (Nonaka, 1995), and to explore Snowden’s view that a ‘volunteer society’ is required for knowledge elicitation to take place (Snowden, 2000c). The research investigated whether sharing expertise and knowledge occurred in a truly voluntary setting. It found that they do, and in a way that could not be envisaged working in a commercial organisation. The charity also, did not have any reliance upon technology. This led a o return to the KM literature from a different perspective, whereupon Tom Wilson’ s recent article (Wilson, 2002) was discovered, which reached similar conclusions, but coming from an alternative angle. Wilson talks about managers and management consultants rebranding management fads, such as Business Process Re-engineering, total quality management and benchmarking, as KM. The organization that was studied, as well as being voluntary, also happens to be predominately female with a 5:1 ratio of women to men, so it exemplifies two main features that distinguish it from organisations in the for-profit sector. Knowledge creating and sharing seems to occur effortlessly in the charity, and yet there are no monetary motivations and very little management influence. The only idea that seems to make sense from the KM literature is that of communities of practice (Wenger and Snyder, 2000).
57 Isobel Nicholson; Katie Taylor; Jacqueline James Developing the People-Skills Of Computing Students: Beyond the Basics. We report on 22 years of helping computing students develop advanced people-skills, such as facilitation and negotiation. We present teaching aims and Teaching methods, and report on the incidence on a number of problems including Hostile (or defensive) students who deny that human factors are important; Problem individuals with specific communication / language difficulties; Converting students so that they will believe in a new and better paradigm. We recommend reframing the first three problems and then a number of other actions. We conclude that it is possible to use person-centred constructivist teaching within an essentially positivist discipline. There is much to learn, but it can be done.
59 Dr Carl Adams; Peter Millard; Mike Moulton The Challenge of Developing Personal Trust Space in Future Mobile Computing. This paper contends that there are several drivers moving computing towards ‘mobile’ provision of services, devices and infrastructure. However, mobile providers of the future need to be aware of the delicate balance between successfully developing mobile applications and services, and between over exploiting the unique mobile capabilities. This paper also develops the concepts of personal trust space and personal trust devices, and then goes on to use these concepts to identify potential challenges and opportunities in the impending mobile commerce future. Intrusive practices and invading customers’ personal trust space will not only inhibit business activity but could also constrain socialising activity and raise ethical issues. The focus on quick profits must not preclude sound common sense: the risk is that businesses could easily kill the goose that lays the mobile golden egg! The paper also reports results from a study into mobile use, examining user expectations and attachment to their mobiles. The study clearly indicates that the ‘multifunctional mobile phone’ of the future has great potential to develop as a serious work tool as well as a truly personal trust device. Such a device offers personalised and personal support, providing a firm basis for supporting business and consumer transactions as well as personal activities. The personal trust device will play a key role in enhancing personal trust space and so develop confidence in new mobile business and social relationships. However, the future mobile phone also has great potential as an intrusive agent. The ‘always-on’ locating functions and capabilities have the potential to act as a ‘spy-in-the-pocket’, monitoring every minute activity and/or receiving a plethora of unsolicited communication. Such uses of the mobile device is a real concern and inhibit personal trust space. This leads to a dichotomy. For mobile business to take off, trust in the truly personal and personalised support devices is a basic prerequisite. Yet the very personal nature of the devices opens up avenues for misuse. Even the very perception of misuse, rather than the actuality of it, will be major constraint.
60 PDC Bennetts Continental Support for Churchmanian Inquiring Systems. This paper examines the support for Churchmanian Inquiring Systems offered by a group of 20th century European Philosophers. This is expected to be relevant for those theories of information systems development which relate to organisational learning (Boland, Tenkasi and Te’eni, 2001), or to system design for technology supported group work (Rana, Turoff and Czech, 1996). The original selection of supporters for inquiries were modernists. Here European phenomenologists are seen to be useful but there are differing opinions as to who is the most relevant.
61 Christopher Wood; Neil McBride Promoting Business-to-Business e-Commerce : Exploring the Barriers. This paper reports a case study of a non-profit co-operative which acts as an intermediary between small builder’s merchants and large suppliers. An investigation of the organisation’s business model, processes and practices derived from interviews with the IT manager and direct observation suggest that the business is well placed to exploit business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. However, the business has made little progress towards implementing a B2B e-commerce site. Consideration of the positioning of the three stakeholders identified in the trading relationship suggests that it may be perceptions of potential benefits, and how they align with business needs and practice, that are blocking the uptake of web based activity. It is suggested that Actor-Network Theory might provide a suitable framework for explicitly identifying important issues that are delaying the uptake of B2B e-commerce in this context.
62 Xin XU; Joe Nandhakumar e-Inter-Organisational Networks in a Newly Formed Large Chinese Enterprise. This paper presents the findings of a study on the emergence and transformation within inter-organisational electronic networks in a newly formed large Chinese enterprise. It employs an interpretive case study approach that involved collection of qualitative data through semi-structured and unstructured interviews and observations. This study emphasises the importance of corporate culture in shaping the inter-organisational relationships (IORs) enabled by the application of newer types of electronic technologies (e-technologies). Although new Chinese enterprises seem to have a high tolerance for cultural differences and a willingness to accept alternative viewpoints, when different national, regional, industrial and occupational factors are taken into account, wide variations exist in developing and maintaining business relationships.
63 Said S. Al-Gahtani; Malcolm King User Acceptance of Information Technology: TRA, TPB, TAM & SNS in the UK. There is continuing debate about the significance of Subjective Norms (SNs) in technology acceptance models, so this study sought to explore their role in contributing to end users’ acceptance of spreadsheet systems in organisational settings in the UK. A comprehensive model was built on the theory of reasoned action, (TRA), including well-established variables from other studies using the technology acceptance model (TAM). The model was tested in a survey of 333 respondents with one year training in industry across the UK. Overall results were encouraging with over 50% of the variation in usage explained by the model variables. The results indicated that subjective norms influence usage and mediate the relations between beliefs about the work environment and system usage, although the dominant influence on usage is still the attitude variable. It is concluded that user acceptance of information technology is best predicted from two general classes of factors centred around both attitudes and subjective norms.
64 Jason Peters; Guy Fitzgerald; Howard Harris A Study of Flexibility and Change in a Web-Based Information System. Organisations today are inundated with pressures of change and transformation induced by environmental and external factors. In order to remain viable business processes and systems within these organisations have to continually change or be adapted, in order for them to remain competitive. Failure to adapt and change can lead to failure of both information systems and organisations as a whole. Within this context of dynamic change a study of change requests for a web-based system developed by a web-development company is analysed. Web based information systems are now an important and integral part of most corporate and small businesses and web-applications are often critical business systems. The findings of the study suggest that particular categories of change can be identified and that these can help to make ongoing and future systems more flexible. This study is part of an on-going research project that seeks to understand and enhance the flexibility of information systems such that they will be more adaptable and easy to change as systems evolve and change due to external influences. The paper discusses the implications of the findings with some conclusions relating to web-based and traditional development, and data and process stability.
65 Andrew Martin Is Practice Just An Error Term, in Theory? The terms theory and practice are embedded into everyday academic parlance, yet their appropriate mutual interaction is often either assumed or ignored. This paper rehearses the roles of theory and practice and considers ways in which they interact, from a practical as well as theoretical point of view, by means of a straightforward framework. It identifies and reflects on a number of paradoxes, potential confusion, tensions and gaps between them, referring to associated literature and focusing on examples from IS. The reader’s appreciation of the complementary roles of theory and practice is refreshed, and some difficulties are resolved. Other difficulties remain; the paper calls for more explicit recognition of practical issues, and for structures and cultures to encourage greater interaction between theory and practice.
66 Donna Champion; Frank Stowell Issues of Validity and Integrity in Action Research: PEArL. This paper builds on the notion of “recoverability” of a social inquiry process and the need to also reflect upon the character, or “authenticity”, of an inquiry. We argue that if researchers are to make their Action Research outcomes accessible to interested others, the elements of the F, M, A model and the PEArL mnemonic must be made public. By using these guides, Action Researchers will make the academic rigour underpinning their work and also the character of the inquiry process open to question and criticism by interested others. If due to unforeseen circumstances some practical outcomes are not welcome and so the validity of the change process is in question, the integrity of the research process can still be established. This is important in complex human situations, where we often learn more from our mistakes than from our success.
68 Andrew Martin Rationale and Architecture for an IS Project Development Simulation on the Internet. Simulation / games can complement traditional teaching methods for more effective learning. The MIS Game and the IS Project Management Game are examples, taking the form of a board game and local personal computer simulation respectively. Today there are a number of advantages to using the Internet as an implementation technology. This paper applies a general framework for identifying added value to a simulation / game to make a case for a further version of this simulation. Further, it discusses options for its technical architecture, and shares experiences from a related development.
69 Andrew Martin Architecture of Information Technology Projects: Research Design. Development of quality technical systems is an ongoing important element of information systems success. The author has initiated a research programme to investigate current practice of configuring IT projects, especially with respect to their technical architecture, from a management viewpoint. Work to date has identified a set of factors that influence practice in this area. The current work seeks to test and further develop theory by assessing the relative strength of the influencing factors and, more ambitiously, to identify associations between influencing factors and successful architecture processes. It is based on systematic questionnaire-based survey of a large number of UK practitioners in both IT-user and IT-service organisations. This paper shares and critiques the research design, discusses progress to date, and anticipates possible findings.
71 Souad Mohamed Mapping Indirect Human Costs to their Derivers. A review of the normative literature, in the field of Information Systems’ (IS) justification reveals that there is a pressing need for those adopting information systems to better identify the potential indirect costs associated with IS adoption. The author proposes a framework for accommodating indirect human cost, while taking into consideration their hidden nature. This framework can be used to identify indirect human cost and to allocate them to their appropriate information systems’ divisions. Furthermore, adapting the ‘cost factors’ of the indirect human costs, Management, Employee, Financial and Maintenance (MEFM) taxonomy, the author proposes a hierarchical model of the indirect human costs’ derivers. The proposed conceptual model incorporates the main indirect human cost derivers and their components (i.e. cost factors) which are associated with IS adoption. Identification and subsequent mapping of these indirect human costs to their derivers is discussed in light of the impact that these costs have on both the individual and the organization. The aim is to have a model that can be used up front at the start of a project as a guide to strategic planners and also as a means to evaluate costs against plan during and at the end of a project. It is proposed that the model aims to assist managers in recognising prospective areas of indirect human costs and savings; and helps managers to recognize and map indirect human costs to their potential root causes. The author further suggests that by taking into consideration the key cost derivers and their impacts, it may result in reducing or even the removal of the resulting indirect human costs. This will allow managers to plan a more realistic strategy for their cash flow. Identifying such derivers will facilitate the recognition of their influence on both the individual and organisation. The paper concludes that it is fundamental to identify root causes of indirect human cost’s as an integral phase of IS’s cost identification.
72 Michael D. Williams; Janet Collins; Felicity Healey; Paul Beynon-Davies Promoting the Adoption of e-Commerce and ICT by SMEs in Wales. T.B.C.
73 Chihab BenMoussa Workers on the Move: New Opportunities Through Mobile Commerce. A key factor affecting toady’s workplace is mobility. This trend creates new challenges to both companies and their employees. Requirements of workers on the move, in terms of information and support, are different from those of employees operating in a stationary work environment. Thanks to the convergence of telecommunication and data communication, new work applications will rely on seamless wireless networking and will thus be inherently mobile. Mobile commerce (m-commerce) is expected to add value to the organization and its employees by bringing information, communication, and collaboration to them instead of their having to go to the source themselves. In the following pages, I will discuss the characteristics and challenges of mobile work practices and how m-commerce can provide more freedom and support to workers when they are away from their stationary work setting. First, I will identify the characteristics and challenges inherent in mobile work practices. Then, I will briefly describe the key characteristics of m-commerce that are relevant to an effective support of mobile workers, which leads to discussion of m-commerce opportunities for workers on the move.
76 Steve Goodwin; Richard Vidgen; Philip Powell Knowledge Management and IT: Exploring Resource-Based and Communicative Approaches. There is considerable debate concerning the status of the artefacts stored in computer systems: are they knowledge objects or simply data? Once a view of knowledge as (human) competency or capability is adopted then clearly a Knowledge Management System cannot store knowledge. However, this does not mean that IT cannot be used to support the knowledge creation and sharing process. This paper develops a framework that clarifies the role and limitations of IT in knowledge management. Although based on prior literature, the framework is speculative in the sense that it has yet to be tested to assess its theoretical and practical value – this is the subject of future work.
77 Paul Spedding; Amit Mitral; Gerry Pennell Issues and Dimensions of Successful IS Use: The Commonwealth Games at Manchester 2002. The Information Systems Research literature contains many analyses of IS failures. This paper explores what is meant by the term IS failure, but also concentrates on what is meant by the term IS success. A framework is introduced to embrace the concept of IS success: the intention is to apply the framework after an IS development (whether of not judged a success) to try to learn for the future. A case study is presented - the 17th Commonwealth Games in Manchester in 2002 (CWG2002). The paper applies the IS Success framework to the case study and thus explores the factors which may have contributed to that success. Finally the paper endeavours to establish lessons for future developments.
79 Frances Bell; David Allen; Tin Wai Hon Technology, Trust and Rural Tourism: Electronic Re-Intermediation via a Virtual Enterprise. We report on research that is informing the development of a Virtual Enterprise, Virtual Market Place for Rural Tourism Sales, Development (VMART). It will allow the participants to respond to the twin challenges of dis-intermediation and competitor re-intermediations, and to exploit the opportunities offered by the Internet and emerging information and communications technologies. We have re-examined within the context of rural tourism factors relevant to virtual trust identified from previous research, and identified two further factors that apply to this context.
81 Erja Mustonen-Ollila; Jukka Heikkonen IS Process Innovation Knowledge Acquisition and Information Distribution Mechanisms. This study identifies Information System (IS) process innovations’ (ISPIs) knowledge acquisition mechanisms, and information distribution mechanisms for over 200 ISPI adoptions in three organisational environments over a period that spanned four decades. The analysis is based on Huber’s organisational learning theory. Four distinct time generations analysed are early computing (1954-1965); main frame era (1965-1983); office computing era (1983-1991), and distributed applications era (1991-1997). These follow roughly Friedman’s and Cornford’s categorisation of IS development eras. Our analysis shows that at first Professional Experts in-house, IS Project Groups, and Manufacturers and Consultants acted as the most important information distribution mechanisms, but after 1990s IS Project Group replaced the others. Focused Search and Organisational Experiments acted as the most important knowledge acquisition mechanisms, but after 1990s Focused Search replaced Organisational Experiments. An interesting finding was that there exists an average linear correlation between knowledge acquisition and information distribution mechanisms.
82 Branko Pecar Automating Time Series Analysis - A Case-Based Reasoning Approach. The method developed and described in this paper departs from the traditional time series analysis approach. The starting premise is that any time series can be broken down into a number of characteristic cases, each of which potentially holds the key for indicating the value of the subsequent observation. The case that constitutes the beginning of the forecasting horizon (the reference case) is compared with all the past cases and the best case match is identified. The differences between the best historical case and the reference case are used for predicting the value through the forecasting horizon. This approach, generally considered to be a case based reasoning approach, preserves the dynamics and the texture of the original series. It enables development of a fully automated and computerised system, free of any models and assumptions. In addition to this, if coupled with the web services technology, it provides an ideal collaborative tool in a distributed environment.
83 Ian Beeson; Stewart Green Using a Language Action Framework to Extend Organisational Process Modelling. In this paper we explore the possibility of using a language action perspective to extend an analysis of organizational processes based on role activity diagramming (RAD). We have previously used role activity diagramming to show the large scale communication flows in an organizational domain and wanted to apply a language action approach to arrive at a finer level of detail for particular interaction sequences. An analytical and modelling approach derived from Winograd & Flores’s ideas about ‘conversations for action’ (CfA) is used to reveal and consider some of the inner dynamics of interaction. The CfA approach could be beneficially re-founded on a Habermasian base to bring out better the participative nature of interaction. This kind of modelling will be a useful supplement to RAD modelling and could perhaps form part of a more generalized exchange model for organizational processes.
84 Dzenana Donko Aspects and Modelling Normatively Regulated Activities. This paper focuses on a particular aspect and modeling of the normatively regulated activities. These activities are characterized by precise objective or purpose, participation of actors as role-holders, and norms and rules that govern the performance of these activities. They are typically found in insurance companies, banks, courts and public administration. In order to perform normatively regulated activities efficiently and effectively, actors need proper information and documents, but also have to act in accordance to relevant norms and rules. The performance of activities in accordance with norms and rules makes them normatively or legally correct and vice versa. Therefore, computerized support for this class of activities should include, besides information processing and dissemination, also support for taking actions in accord with applicable norms and rules. The main goals of the software system in support of normatively regulated activities are increased efficiency and effectiveness, but also increased consistency in interpretation and application of norms and rules, and thus increased legitimacy of their performance. Aspects of the normatively regulated organizational activities and approach to make model of normatively regulated activities, what is foundation for building software systems to support their performance, are also described in this paper. The formal model is illustrated by an example of claim processing in an insurance company.
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